AR Foundation Demo App by AbigailMathews - 1

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Demo App and Tutorial for Unity's ARFoundation Package

Unity 2019.1.0a14Unknown LicenseUpdated 1 year agoCreated on July 28th, 2019
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AR Foundations Demo App

This is a tutorial and resources for getting started building AR apps with Unity’s AR Foundation plugin. You can follow along with this tutorial in your own project, and make use of the art assets included in the plants.unitypackage, or you can jump in at any stage of the project by opening the included Unity project and choosing the scenes labeled ‘Step1-Setup’, etc. The final stage of the tutorial is represented in the FlowerPower scene.

This tutorial presumes a moderate level of familiarity with Unity.


Resources

AR Foundations Sample Apps by Unity

These sample scenes are a good place to start to see how to create a AR Foundations scene.

AR Foundations Documentation – v2.2

From the Manual, this covers setup and describes the basic features of the package.

Demo App

The concept for this app is that you can place some seedlings in your environment and then when you ‘throw’ water at them, they will grow. For the demo, we will cover how to place objects onto a detected plane and also how to spawn a water prefab to interact with these virtual items. However, you could develop the gameplay more in a number of ways – by adding different varieties of plants with different requirements (how much water, i.e.), introducing different mechanics such as fertilizers or weeding, adding timers to the ‘watering can’ or the plants, etc.


Setup

  1. Launch Unity and start a new 3D project.
  2. In Window > Package Manager:
  • select All Packages from the dropdown at the top left of the Package Manager and wait for packages to load
  • Locate ARFoundation and hit Install
  • Install ARKit XR Plugin, ARCore XR Plugin, or both depending on your target hardware. Note you’ll need a Mac + iOS device to build for iOS. You can build for Android from either a Mac or PC.
  1. Close the Package Manager, and delete the Camera and Directional Light from the Hierarchy. You should have an empty Scene now.
  2. Right-click in the Hierarchy, and select XR > AR Session from the context menu.
  3. Right-click in the Hierarchy, select XR > AR Session Origin from the context menu.

Hierarchy View

Your Hierarchy should appear like this after adding the AR Session and AR Session Origin prefabs


Build Your App to Your Device

You can now build your empty AR scene and you will see the camera output to the screen. Even if you want to skip the build step, it’s a good time to get your Build Settings straightened out.

  1. Go to File > Build Settings
  2. Select either Android or iOS from the Platform list and hit Switch Platform – you will have to wait for a few minutes for this process.
  3. Still in Build Settings, add the current scene to the build by hitting the Add Open Scenes button at the bottom right of the Scenes in Build field.
  4. Now click the Player Settings... button at the bottom left of the Build Settings window. You’ll need to change several settings, depending on your platform (iOS or Android)

iOS:

  • In Player Settings > Other Settings > Identification add an appropriate Bundle Identifier and your Apple Developer Signing information (most likely just your Apple ID).
  • In Player Settings > Other Settings > Configuration enter Camera in the Camera Usage Description field.
  • Check the Requires ARKit Support

Android:

  • In Other Settings > Rendering > Graphics APIs remove Vulkan from the list by selecting it and clicking the minus button.
  • In Other Settings > Rendering Deselect the Multithreaded Rendering checkbox
  • In Other Settings > Identification add an appropriate Package Name
  • In Other Settings > Identification change the Minimum API Level to Android 7.0 ‘Nougat’ (API level 24)
  • In Other Settings > Configuration > Target Architectures make sure x86 support is Disabled

You’ll also want to change your Company Name and Product Name at the top of the Player Settings window.

Now, you can try building your app if you’d like. Even though it looks like you’re seeing just the device camera rendering directly to your phone’s screen, ARFoundation is doing a lot behind the scenes. We’ll see how to visualize this in the next section.


Plane and Point Detection

Now we might want to be able to visualize the plane and point detection capabilities of AR Foundation. To do this, we will add some components to the ARSessionOrigin game object.

  1. Select the ARSession Origin in the Hierarchy, and then in the Inspector, click Add Component and then search for ARPlaneManager. Click to add the component to the game object.

Add components to ARSessionOrigin

Adding the ARPlaneManager script component to the ARSessionOrigin

  1. With the ARSessionOrigin still selected, click Add Component again in the Inspector. This time, search for ARPointCloudManager, and add it to the game object as before.

Your ARSessionOrigin object will now look like this:

ARSessionOrigin object

ARSessionOrigin with both ARPlaneManager and ARPointCloudManager script components

You may have noticed there is also something called an ARReferencePointManager. Reference Points are added and managed manually by the developer, so even if we added an ARReferencePointManager to the SessionOrigin object, we wouldn’t see anything unless we started adding points manually via script.

Now we have the Managers in place on the Session Origin, but we still won’t see anything until we assign something to the Plane Prefab field of the ARPlaneManager script and the Point Cloud Prefab of the ARPointCloudManager. You can create your own custom objects for these prefabs, but we’ll use the default assets provided as part of AR Foundation.

To create the prefabs, we first need to add the provided assets to our Hierarchy.

  1. Right click inside the Hierarchy and select XR > AR Default Plane to place an AR Default Plane object in the Hierarchy.

Adding a Default Plane to the Hierarchy

Add an AR Default Plane game object to the Hierarchy by right clicking and selecting it from the dropdown

  1. As above, right click inside the Hierarchy and select XR > AR Default Point Cloud to place an AR Default Point Cloud object in the Hierarchy.

Now, we need to make these two new objects into prefabs.

  1. Drag the AR Default Plane and AR Default Point Cloud into the Assets folder (in the Project window), to transform them into prefabs. Once they are prefabs, you’ll see that they appear as blue cubes in the Project window. The icons in the Hierarchy will have also changed to blue.

Create plane and point prefabs

Drag the plane and point game objects to the project window to make them into prefabs.

  1. Once the prefabs are saved in the Assets folder, delete the two prefabs from the Hierarchy.

  2. Select the AR Session Origin object in the Hierarchy again. Drag the correct prefab from the Assets folder (Project Window) into the Plane Prefab field of the AR Plane Manager and the Point Cloud Prefab field of the AR Point Cloud Manager.

Prefabs in place

The ARSessionOrigin with the plane prefab and the point cloud prefab correctly assigned for plane and point detection/visualization.

Now if you build your project to your device, you should see a mesh of triangles depicting detected planes, as well as a bunch of points representing the point cloud.


Placing objects in our AR environment

Now that we can detect planes, let’s place a virtual object on the plane. I’ve included some starter assets in keeping with the gardening theme of the app, if you’d like to use them.

  1. Import the plants.unitypackage included in this repo by selecting Assets > Import Package > Custom Package... and navigating to the plants.unitypackage.

There are two ways to capture ray hits on a detected plane or point surface:

public bool Raycast(Vector2 screenPoint, List<ARRaycastHit> hitResults, TrackableType trackableTypeMask = TrackableType.All);

public bool Raycast(Ray ray, List<ARRaycastHit> hitResults, TrackableType trackableTypeMask = TrackableType.All, float pointCloudRaycastAngleInDegrees = 5f);

We’re going to use the first, simpler version which is fine for casting rays from touch events on the screen.

  1. Add an ARRaycastManager script component to the ARSessionOrigin.

Raycast Manager

We need the raycast manager to be present on the Session Origin object to detect hits on the plane.

  1. Create an empty game object in the Hierarchy to use as a Game Manager – I called mine ‘FlowerManager’. Add a script component to your manager object (I also called mine FlowerManager.cs) & open it in MonoDevelop or VisualStudio.

  2. In the script, add using UnityEngine.XR.ARFoundation as well as using UnityEngine.XR.ARSubsystems so we don’t have to prefix everything.

  3. Let’s get references to the prefab we want to place as well as our ARSessionOrigin. We also need a place to store a reference to the ARRaycastManager and our special ARRaycast hits:

[SerializeField] GameObject flowerPrefab;
[SerializeField] ARSessionOrigin arSessionOrigin;

ARRaycastManager arRaycastManager;

static List<ARRaycastHit> hits = new List<ARRaycastHit>();

void Start() {
 arRaycastManager = arSessionOrigin.GetComponent<ARRaycastManager>();
}
  1. We’ll check for a touch on the screen, and if we detect one we’ll cast a ray and place a prefab at the hit point on the detected plane.
void Update() {
 Touch touch = Input.GetTouch(0); // Just get the first touch
 
 if (arRaycastManager.Raycast(touch.position, hits, TrackableType.PlaneWithinPolygon) {
  Pose hitPose = hits[0].pose; // There can be multiple hits (potentially overlapping planes) -- just get the top-most
  
  Instantiate(flowerPrefab, hitPose.position, hitPose.rotation);
 }
}
  1. Assign the ARSessionOrigin object and the FlowerPrefab fields in the Inspector.

Now, if we build and run the app, you should be able to place flowers on detected planes.


UI and Interaction with Virtual Objects

In this section, we’ll create a simple UI with a button that will spawn a raindrop prefab we’ll use to ‘water’ our virtual plant. If you’ve started with a seedling prefab, this is a chance to have it ‘grow’ into the other prefabs with appropriate watering.

  1. Add a Canvas and an Event System to the Hierarchy (Right-click the Hierarchy and select UI > Canvas and both should show up.

  2. With the Canvas selected, create a button (Right-click then select UI > Button). It’s a good time to change the preview resolution/orientation of the Game window now, by changing the drop-down from the default ‘Free Aspect’ to 1920 x 1080 Portrait or similar, so that we can get a good idea about how this might end up looking on the device. Note that we’d ideally likely want to adjust our UI setup for landscape as well, but for now we’re doing the simple thing for demo purposes.

Aspect Ratio

Adjust the aspect ratio used by the Game window so that you can better position your button.

  1. Adjust your button to your liking. Since it’s a water button, I made mine blue and moved it to the bottom center of the screen. You’ll also want to make the button much larger since you want the user to be able to easily hit it. Pick a nice icon if you want to get fancy.

Button setup

My Hierarchy and Game window with the button created and ‘styled’ slightly.

  1. Set up the script to detect UI hits and spawn a raindrop prefab. For convenience, I added all raindrop code to the FlowerManager script, but if you’d like to separate it out, do so. We’re going to spawn the raindrops from the center of the Camera, so, first we need a reference to the Camera. Add using UnityEngine.EventSystems to the top of the file. In your variable declarations, add the line Camera cameraOrigin; and in the Start() method add cameraOrigin = arSessionOrigin.GetComponentInChildren<Camera>();. We also need a reference to a ‘Raindrop Prefab’, so add that too – [SerializeField] GameObject raindropPrefab;.

  2. Add a new method that we’ll fire when the button is pressed:

public void ShootRaindrop() {
 GameObject newRaindrop = Instantiate<GameObject>(raindropPrefab);
 newRaindrop.transform.position = cameraOrigin.transform.position; // 'Shoot' the raindrop from the camera (user's) position
 Rigidbody rb = newRaindrop.GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
 rb.AddForce(1000 * cameraOrigin.transform.forward); // Modify this until it seems about right.
}
  1. Create a ‘raindrop’ prefab. Mine is just a blue sphere. Maybe yours will be better. It needs a Collider and a Rigidbody. You will probably also want to scale it down quite a bit – keep in mind that one Unity unit represents 1 meter in the ‘real world’. So if you place a default Unity sphere in an AR scene, it will be 1 meter across. When you’re happy, make your raindrop into a prefab and drag it into the Raindrop prefab field of the FlowerManager script component.

  2. Hook up the ShootRaindrop() function to the button’s onClick event:

Button Click event setup

Select your new ShootRaindrop() function as the target function to execute on the button’s click event.

If you built your project now, you’d discover that your raindrops were spawning correctly, but that you would also spawn another flower with each tap on the Water button. This is because the raycast used by the ARRaycastManager is still firing, despite the fact that we’ve had a UI hit. So, let’s add some code to check whether we’re over a UI element (or any other game object) and not spawn a flower if so.

  1. Add a new method to detect whether the screen touch is over UI or not:
private bool isTouchOverUI(Vector2 pos) {
 if (EventSystem.current == null) return false; // We should always have a Event System in place if we have a Canvas/any UI
 
 PointerEventData eventDataCurrentPosition = new PointerEventData(EventSystem.current);
 
 eventDataCurrentPosition.position = new Vector2(pos.x, pos.y);
 List<RaycastResult> results = new List<RaycastResult>();
 EventSystem.current.RaycastAll(eventDataCurrentPosition, results); // Cast from the current position and collect any hits
 return results.Count > 0; // We have hit at least one UI object
}

Now modify the inner if statement in the Update() method to read: if (arRaycastManager.Raycast(touch.position, hits, TrackableType.PlaneWithinPolygon) && !isTouchOverUI(touch.position))

Now we should spawn only the Raindrop prefab and not the Flower when we press the button.

  1. Add some colliders to your flower prefabs. That way you can do something fun (like spawn a particle effect) when the raindrop hits the flower.

Improvements

There are a number of things you can do to make this app more fun or better from a UX perspective. Here are a few ideas:

  • Include better feedback about the state of the ARSession for the user. There are a number of Events that AR Foundation provides that we can subscribe to, to provide better user feedback.
  • Include a tutorial or some onboarding
  • Make proper use of the watering mechanic advance the state of the plant that’s been watered (find out which plant has been hit and allow it to grow with proper watering).
  • Destroy the raindrop prefab and have a particle effect on impact
  • Create new plants
  • Create new mechanics – weeding, plants with variable water/sunlight/etc. needs
  • Timing – users must wait until watering/new plants/upgrades are available so that they pace out resources.
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